Wind Turbine Basics

Horizontal axis turbines

Horizontal axis turbines are the most common turbine configuration used today. They consist of a tall tower, atop which sits a fan-like rotor that faces into or away from the wind, a generator, a controller, and other components. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two- or three-bladed.

Horizontal axis turbines sit high atop towers to take advantage of the stronger and less turbulent wind at 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground. Each blade acts like an airplane wing, so when wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, which causes the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the wind’s force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity.

Vertical Axis Turbines

Vertical axis turbines are of two types: Savonius and Darrieus. Neither type is in wide use.

The Darrieus turbine was invented in France in the 1920s. Often described as looking like an eggbeater, it has vertical blades that rotate into and out of the wind. Using aerodynamic lift, it can capture more energy than drag devices. The Giromill and cycloturbine are variants on the Darrieus turbine.

The Savonius turbine is S-shaped if viewed from above. This drag-type turbine turns relatively slowly but yields a high torque. It is useful for grinding grain, pumping water, and many other tasks, but its slow rotational speeds are not good for generating electricity.

In addition, windmills are still used for a variety of purposes. Windmills have been used by humans since at least 200 B.C. for grinding grain and pumping water. By the 1900s, windmills were used on farms and ranches in the United States to pump water and, later, to produce electricity. Windmills have more blades than modern wind turbines, and they rely on drag to rotate the blades.